Theory of Laser Beam Machining |

By | June 11, 2016

Laser  are being used  for a variety of industrial application, including  heat  treatment welding and  measurement as well as scribing, cutting, and drilling. Then term laser stand for ‘’light amplification of stimulated emission of radiation. ’’A laser is an optical transducer that converts.

Laser Beam machining

Electrical into a highly coherent light beam. A laser light beam has several properties that’ distinguish it from other forms of light. It is monochromatic and highly collimated. These properties allow the light generated by a laser to be focused, using conventional optical lenses, onto a very small spot with resulting high power densities. Depending on the amount of energy contained in the light beam and its degree of concentration at the spot, the various industrial processes can accomplished.


Laser beam machining (LMB) used the light energy from a laser to remove material by vaporization and ablation. The types of lasers used in LMB are carbon dioxide gas lasers and solid-state lasers. In laser beam machining, the energy of the coherent light beam is concentrated not only optically but also in terms of time. The light beam is pulsed so that released energy result in an impulse against the work surface that produces a combination of evaporation and melting, with the melted material evacuating the surface at high velocity.

Laser  beam  machining  is used  to perform various types of drilling, slitting, slotting, scribing, and marking  operations, Drilling small-diameter holes is possible, down to 0.025mm. For larger holes, above 0.05-mm diameter, the laser beam is controlled to cut the outline of the hole.

LMB is not considered a mass production process and it is generally used on thin stock. The range of work materials that can be machined by LMB is virtually unlimited.

  • High light energy absorption,
  • Poor reflectivity.
  • Good thermal conductivity,
  • Low specific heat,
  • Low heat of fusion, and
  • Low heat of vaporization.

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